About comprehensive lithium battery basic knowledge
1. What is a lithium battery
Lithium batteries are the batteries used in our mobile phones or electric vehicles.
If a more professional explanation is "a type of battery that uses lithium metal or lithium alloy as the negative electrode material and uses a non-aqueous electrolyte solution, it can be recharged for multiple cycles."
Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two categories: lithium ion batteries and lithium metal batteries. We use lithium-ion batteries in large quantities, and later a lithium metal battery with higher safety, specific capacity, and cost-effectiveness began to appear. Lithium-ion batteries do not contain metallic lithium and are rechargeable. The lithium battery mentioned in this article mainly refers to lithium-ion batteries.
The composition of the lithium battery is mainly composed of two parts, the battery cell and the management system (the simple management system is also called the protection board), the battery cell is equivalent to the heart of the lithium battery, and the battery management system is equivalent to the brain of the lithium battery.
The English of the battery cell: Cell, the English of the battery management system: BMS (Battery Management System), the English of the protection board: PCM (Protection Circuit Modules)
Lithium batteries must be used with a suitable battery management system, otherwise it is very dangerous. A lithium battery pack with a lithium battery management system is generally called a lithium battery pack.
2. What is a power lithium battery
Power lithium battery is a type of power battery, which refers to the battery used in the power drive system. It is relative to consumer lithium batteries, such as lithium batteries for electric vehicles, lithium batteries for electric bicycles, and lithium batteries for AGV robots. , Lithium batteries for power tools, etc., and sometimes energy storage lithium batteries are also classified as power batteries in a broader situation.
Compared with ordinary lithium batteries, power lithium batteries generally have more special requirements, high energy density, high volume-to-energy ratio, wide temperature range, support for high-rate discharge, longer cycle life, and safer.
3. Composition of lithium battery
Lithium battery cells are mainly composed of four parts, positive electrode material, negative electrode material, electrolyte, and diaphragm.
The lithium battery PACK is mainly composed of two parts, the battery cell and the battery management system.
4. Advantages and disadvantages of lithium batteries
The advantages and disadvantages of lithium batteries are relative to other batteries, such as our commonly used lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, etc.
Lithium batteries have many advantages, such as high voltage platform, high energy density (light weight, small size), long service life, and environmental protection.
The disadvantage of lithium batteries is that the price is relatively high, the temperature range is relatively narrow, and there are certain safety hazards (need to add a protection system).
5. Lithium battery classification
There are many classification methods for lithium batteries, and the classification is different according to different standards.
According to shape: square battery (such as mobile phone lithium battery), cylindrical battery (such as 18650 battery);
According to the outer packaging: aluminum shell lithium battery, steel shell lithium battery, soft pack lithium battery;
According to the state of the electrolyte: lithium ion battery (LIB), polymer lithium battery (PLB);
According to the positive electrode material: lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4), ternary lithium (LiNixCoyMnzO2), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4).