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Characteristics and differences between Nickel-cadmium battery and lithium-ion battery

2021-12-20

Characteristics and differences between Nickel-cadmium battery and lithium-ion battery

One, Characteristics of Nickel-cadmiun batteries  

1.  Nickel-cadmium battery can be repeated more than 500 times of charge and discharge, very economic; 

2.  Internal resistance is small, can be used for large current discharge, when it discharge voltage change is very small, as a DC power supply is a kind of best quality battery; 

3.  Because the use of completely sealed, so there will be no electrolyte leakage phenomenon, also do not add electrolyte completely; 

4.  Compared with other types of batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries can withstand overcharging or letting off power, simple and convenient operation; 

5.  Long time placed under the performance will not deteriorate, when the full charge can be restored to the original characteristics; 

6.  Can be used in a wide temperature range; 

7.  Because it is made of metal containers, it is mechanically strong; 

8.  Nickel-cadmium batteries are manufactured under very strict quality control and have excellent quality dependence.  


Two. nickel cadmium battery discharge characteristics  

1.  Discharge voltage is more or less different according to its discharge current, roughly about 1.2V; 

2.  The capacity of the battery is expressed in Ah,mAh units; 

3.  When the discharge reaches the discharge terminal limit, it is called "discharge termination voltage". The discharge termination voltage of nickel-cadmium battery is 1.0V/cell. 

4.  The operating temperature range is -20℃~60℃, in this range can be discharged.  


Three, the preservation of matters needing attention  

1.  Can be stored in the temperature range of -30℃~50℃, but if it is placed for a long time, please save below 35℃; 

2.  It is possible to preserve the charge state or the discharge state, but the discharge state restores the capacity earlier and is more easily activated. 

3.  When the battery is placed for a long time, it must be fully charged before use.  


Four, Memoryeffect of nickel-cadmium battery  

When a nickel-cadmium battery is repeatedly charged at a low capacity for several times, the battery becomes useless if a large discharge is required, which is called the "memory effect".  Memory effects are probably the most misunderstood problem in nickel-cadmium batteries.  Discharge termination voltage is set higher video recorder, with the use of low voltage, it seems to decrease on the surface, but the low discharge voltage can be solved by 1 to 2 times of complete discharge.  One discharge after ten charges is recommended to prevent memory effects.  


Lithium ion battery  

Characteristics of Lithium Ion Battery:  

1.  With high energy density, compared with high capacity nickel-cadmium battery, its volume energy is 1.5 times, weight energy density is 2 times; 

2.  High voltage, the average operating voltage is 3.6V, which is 3 times that of nickel-cadmium battery and nickel-metal hydride battery (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride battery voltage is 1.2V); 

3.  Use voltage flat and high capacity; 

4.  Load characteristics, 2C discharge is possible; 

5.  Widely used temperature -20℃ ~ 60℃6.  Excellent charge and discharge life, after 500 times of discharge, its capacity is at least 70%.  


Differences between ni-Mh batteries and lithium-ion batteries:  

 

First, weight  

Nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium both have a voltage of 1.2V per cell, while lithium-ion batteries have a voltage of 3.6V, which is three times higher than the other two.  And lithium-ion batteries weigh almost as much as nickel-cadmium batteries, while nickel-metal hydride batteries weigh more.  It can be seen that the weight of each battery is different, but due to the high voltage of 3.6V, the number of single battery pack can be reduced by one third under the condition of the same output voltage, so that the weight and volume of the battery after molding are reduced.  

 

Second, memory effect  

Nickel-metal hydride batteries have the same memory effect as nickel-cadmium batteries.  Therefore, regular discharge management is also necessary.  This periodic discharge management is handled in a vague state, and even some discharge under incorrect knowledge (each discharge or discharge after several use varies from company to company). This cumbersome discharge management cannot be prevented when using nickel-metal hydride batteries.  Compared with lithium-ion batteries, they are very convenient and simple to use because they have no memory effect at all.  It does not need to pay attention to the residual voltage, can be directly charged, charging time can be shortened naturally.  


Three, self-discharge rate  

Nickel cadmium battery is 15 ~ 30% (month).  Nickel-metal hydride batteries are 25-35% (month), and lithium-ion batteries are 2-5% (month).  The above nickel-metal hydride batteries have the highest self-discharge rate, while lithium-ion batteries have very low discharge rate compared with the other two types of batteries.  

 

Iv. Charging method  

Nickel-metal hydride batteries and lithium-ion batteries cannot withstand overcharging.  Therefore, the nickel-metal hydride battery is charged by pICKCUT control mode with constant current. When the charging voltage reaches the highest, it is the best charging mode to stop charging.  And lithium ion battery is the best way to use fixed current, fixed voltage charging, if the nickel cadmium battery charger -DV control way to charge the nickel metal hydride battery and lithium ion battery.


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