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The main components of lithium battery electrolyte, the harm of electrolyte components.


The main components of lithium battery electrolyte, the harm of electrolyte components.

Lithium battery electrolyte is the carrier of ion transmission in the battery. It conducts ions between the positive and negative electrodes of the lithium battery. It is like the "love tie" between the positive electrode and the negative electrode. Guarantee of high specific energy and other advantages. So what are the main components of lithium battery electrolyte? What is the harm of electrolyte composition?

Main components of lithium battery electrolyte

1.Ethylene Carbonate: Molecular formula: C3H4O3, transparent and colorless liquid (>35°C), crystalline solid at room temperature, and a good solvent for polyacrylonitrile and polyvinyl chloride.

2.Propylene carbonate, colorless, odorless, or light yellow transparent liquid, soluble in water and carbon tetrachloride, and miscible with ether, acetone, benzene, etc. This product should be stored in a cool, ventilated, dry place, away from fire, and stored and transported in accordance with the regulations of general low-toxic chemicals.

3.Diethyl carbonate, colorless liquid, slightly odor; vapor pressure 1.33kPa/23.8°C; flash point 25°C (flammable liquid can volatilize into vapor and run into the air.

4.Dimethyl carbonate is a non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and versatile chemical raw material; at the same time, it has a higher evaporation temperature and a faster evaporation rate.

5.Ethyl methyl carbonate, a colorless and transparent liquid, is a high-tech, high value-added chemical product that has emerged in recent years. It is an excellent solvent for lithium battery electrolyte. This product should be stored in a cool, ventilated and dry place. The storage and transportation of inflammable chemicals are stipulated.

6.Lithium hexafluorophosphate, a white crystal or powder, is highly deliquescent; it decomposes when exposed to the air or heated, and when exposed to the air or heated, lithium hexafluorophosphate decomposes rapidly in the air due to the action of water vapor, releasing PF5 and producing white smoke.

7.Phosphorus pentafluoride is a phosphorus halide compound. Phosphorus pentafluoride is a colorless malodorous gas at normal temperature and pressure, and it is strongly irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Phosphorus pentafluoride is used as a catalyst for the polymerization reaction.

The harm of electrolyte composition

Lithium battery electrolytes are divided into two types, one is acidic electrolyte and the other is alkaline. The main component of the former is sulfuric acid and the latter is sodium hydroxide. Both are highly corrosive and their harm is self-evident. 

1.Health hazards, entry ways: inhalation, ingestion, transdermal absorption.
Health hazards: Diethyl carbonate is a mild irritant and anesthetic. It may cause headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, dyspnea, etc. after inhalation. Liquid or high-concentration vapor is irritating. Oral irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. Long-term repeated contact with the skin is irritating.

2.Radiation: The so-called radiation refers to the phenomenon that radio frequency waves generated by the high-frequency oscillation of the circuit are emitted into space. Radiation of a certain frequency and intensity has an impact on the body.

3.The working environment of lithium batteries may contain many harmful elements. Some mercury elements are more common, and there are other lead elements. Cause heavy metal disease.

4.It produces white corrosive and irritating hydrogen fluoride fumes in humid air. Dissolve in the water to liberate highly toxic corrosive gases. Decomposes when exposed to alkali.

Protective measures

Respiratory protection: When the concentration in the air is high, it is recommended to wear a self-priming filter gas mask (half mask).

Eye protection: wear safety glasses.

Body protection: wear anti-static overalls.

Hand protection: wear rubber gloves.

Others: Smoking is strictly prohibited at the work site. After work, take a shower and change clothes. Pay attention to personal hygiene.

Lithium battery electrolyte mainly causes poisoning , chemical corrosion, and mechanical damage to human organs. Be careful when using it, try to avoid direct contact with the skin, avoid getting into eyes and swallowing it by mistake, otherwise the consequences will be disastrous. We have seen the power of such things in the chemical laboratory. In particular, concentrated sulfuric acid can instantly carbonize organic matter such as cellulose and glucose. Skin cells are also composed of a large number of organic compounds, so once contacted, the consequences must be very serious.

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