Which is safer, ternary lithium battery or lithium iron phosphate battery?
The most common safety problem of new energy vehicle batteries is spontaneous combustion. Many people are not sure which is safer between ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries. If judged according to this situation, the safety performance of lithium iron phosphate batteries will be higher than that of lithium iron phosphate batteries. The ternary lithium battery is higher.
This is mainly because the heat resistance of lithium iron phosphate batteries is relatively good, and the thermal runaway temperature can reach more than 800 degrees. That is to say, the lithium iron phosphate battery will not spontaneously combust if it does not reach 800 degrees.
The ternary lithium battery is different. The thermal runaway temperature is basically around 200 degrees. Throughout the spontaneous combustion events of new energy vehicles, most of them are ternary lithium batteries. Therefore, for hot areas, the risk of spontaneous combustion of ternary lithium batteries will be higher.
The differences between lithium iron phosphate and ternary lithium batteries mainly include cost, low temperature performance, heat resistance, energy density, and service life. The details are as follows:
1. Cost: Lithium iron phosphate batteries do not contain precious metals such as cobalt, so the cost of raw materials is low, while ternary lithium batteries are the opposite;
2. Low temperature performance: The limit operating temperature of the ternary lithium battery is minus 30 degrees, while the lithium iron phosphate battery is minus 20 degrees, and in the same low temperature environment, the attenuation of the lithium iron phosphate battery will be more severe;
3. Heat resistance: As mentioned above, the thermal runaway temperature of lithium iron phosphate can reach 800 degrees, while the ternary lithium battery is only 200 degrees, and the heat resistance of lithium iron phosphate batteries will be better;
4. Energy density: The energy density of the ternary lithium battery will be higher, that is, the battery can hold more electrons under the same volume, so in the case of the same capacity, the volume and weight of the ternary lithium battery will be smaller;
5. Service life: The number of charge and discharge cycles of lithium iron phosphate batteries can reach more than 3,500 times, and some can even reach 5,000 times, while the number of cycles of ternary lithium batteries is only about 2,500 times, so the life of lithium iron phosphate batteries is longer.