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Why do lithium-ion batteries explode?


Why do lithium-ion batteries explode?

Because of many fires and explosions caused by lithium-ion batteries, lithium-ion batteries are not completely accepted by consumers. Although most of the time, lithium-ion batteries are in a very stable state, so why do lithium-ion batteries explode? The following points are for your reference, and I hope to help you solve your doubts;

1.Insufficient capacity of negative electrode of lithium ion battery

When the capacity of the negative electrode of a lithium-ion battery is insufficient, the lithium atoms appearing during charging cannot be inserted into the interlayer structure of the negative electrode graphite, and will precipitate on the surface of the negative electrode to form crystals.

The long-term formation of crystals in lithium-ion batteries can cause short circuits. At this time, the battery cells are discharged rapidly, and a lot of heat will appear, which will burn the diaphragm. High temperature will decompose the electrolyte into gas, and when the pressure is too high, the cell will explode.

2.The moisture content is too high

When charging, water can react with lithium to generate lithium oxide, which will cause the capacity of the battery cell to be lost, and it is easy to overcharge the battery to generate gas. The decomposition voltage of water is low, and it is easy to decompose to generate gas during charging. A series of generated gas will increase the internal pressure of the cell, and when the shell of the cell cannot withstand it, the cell will explode.

3.Internal short circuit

The short-circuit of the internal battery cell causes a large current discharge, a large amount of heat occurs, which burns the diaphragm, and causes a greater short-circuit phenomenon, which will decompose the electrolyte into gas, and if the internal pressure is too high, the battery cell will explode.

4.Lithium-ion battery overcharge

When the battery cell is overcharged, the excessive release of lithium in the positive electrode will change the structure of the positive electrode. If too much lithium is released, it is easy to be unable to insert into the negative electrode, and it is also easy to cause lithium deposition on the surface of the negative electrode. Moreover, when the voltage reaches 4.5V or more, The electrolyte will decompose to produce a large amount of gas. All of the above may cause an explosion.

5.External short circuit

The external short circuit may be caused by the wrong connection of the positive and negative electrodes. Due to the external short circuit, the battery discharge current is very large, which will cause the battery core to heat up.

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